When it comes to technological barriers of CCS, the state-of-the-art for CO2 capture is amine solvents. However, even after many years of optimization, commercial amine capture systems still demand 2 GJ or more per ton CO2, several times larger than required by thermodynamics. Furthermore, amines are susceptible to degradation in oxygen-rich post-combustion scenarios like cement production and coal or natural gas power plants. Thus, advances that reduce the energy penalty as well as the degradation rate of capture materials are necessary.
From a logistical perspective, even where mature technologies are directly applicable, projects are often near ~ $1 billion. Forming the right partnerships, taking advantage of government incentives, and cooperating with other industries to build necessary infrastructure are major challenges.